SELECTED PUBLICATIONS
Atko-Meeme VIRU

Viru, A., Viru, M., Volver, A. Monitoring. 7th International Sports Conference, Vilnius 2004 (Lithuania).
Monitorización del Entrenamiento.

Viru A. Early contribution of Russian stress and exercise physiologists. J Appl Physiol 2002,92:1378-1382.
Contribuciones Históricas de los Fisiólogos Rusos del Stress y del Ejercicio.

Viru A, Hackney AC, Välja E, Karelson K, Janson T, Viru M. Influence of prolonged continuous exercise on hormone responses to subsequent exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001,85:578-585.
Influencias del Ejercicio Continuo Prolongado sobre la Respuesta Hormonal en Subsiguientes Ejercicios en Humanos.

 

 

 

 

Viru A, Viru M. The Analysis of Peak Performance in Physiological Aspect. Journal "Education. Physical Training. Sport" 2004, 4:54.
Viru, A., Viru, M., Volver, A. Monitoring. 7th International Sports Conference, Vilnius 2004 (Lithuania).
Verkhoshanski, Y., and A. Viru. 1990. Einige GeretzmäBigkeiten der langfristigen Adaptation des Organismus von Sportlern an körperliche Belastung. Leistungsport 3:10-3.
Viru A. Adaptation in Sports Training. Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo, CRL Press, 1995, 310 p.
Viru A, Viru M. Biochemical Monitoring of Sports Training. Champaign, Human Kinetics, 2001,283p.
Viru A, Litvinova L, Viru M, Smirnova T. Glucocorticoids in metabolic control during exercise. Alanine metabolism. J Appl Physiol 1994,76:801-805.
Viru A. Molecular and cellular mechanism of training effects. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1994,34:309-322.
Viru A, Tendzegolskis Z. Plasma endorphin species during dynamic exercise in humans. Clin Physiol 1995,15:73-79.
Viru A, Smirnova T, Karelson K, Snegovskaya V, Viru M. Determinants and modulators of hormonal responses to exercise. Biol Sport 1996,13:169-187.
Viru A, Viru M. Organism’s adaptivity: an essential problem in sports medicine. Editorial Medicina dello Sport 1997,50:365-371. 
Viru A, Viru M. Nature of training effects. In: W.E.Garett, D.T. Kirkundall (ed.) Exercise and Sport Science. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000,67-95.
Viru A, Hackney AC, Välja E, Karelson K, Janson T, Viru M. Influence of prolonged continuous exercise on hormone responses to subsequent exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001,85:578-585.
Viru A, Viru M. Cortisol - Essential adaptation hormone in exercise. Int.J.Sport Physiol. 2004., 25: 461-464.
Viru A. Early contribution of Russian stress and exercise physiologists. J Appl Physiol 2002,92:1378-1382.
Viru, A. 1964. Des changements dans le fonctionnement des surrénales avant la compétition. Acta et Commentationes Universitatis Tartuensis 154:70-7.
Viru, A. 1975a. Defense reaction theory of fatigue. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für die Sportsmedizin 4:171-87.
Viru, A. 1975b. Some methodological questions of the investigation of the endocrine regulation of metabolism during muscular work. Acta et Commentationes Universitatis Tartuensis 368:3-19.
Viru, A. 1976a. The physical working ability and the mouse organism's unspecific resistance in the course of training. Sechenov Physiological Journal of the USSR 62:636-9.
Viru, A. 1976b. The role of the adrenocortical reaction to exertion in the increase of body working capacity. Bulleten Eksperimental'noi Biologij i Medicine (Moscow) 82:774-6.
Viru, A. 1977. Functions of adrenal cortex in muscular activity. Moscow: Medicina.
Viru, A. 1983. Exercise metabolism and endocrine function. In Biochemistry of exercise, ed. Knuttgen, H. G., J. A. Vogel, and J. Poortmans, 76-86. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Viru, A. 1984. The mechanism of training effects: A hypothesis. International Joumal of Sports Medicine 5:219-27.
Viru, A. 1985a. Hormones in muscular activity. Vol. I. Hormonal ensemble in exercise. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Viru, A. 1985b. Hormones in muscular activity. Vol. II. Adaptive effects of hormones in exercise. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Viru, A. 1987. Mobilization of structural protein during exercise. Sports Medicine 4:95-128.
Viru, A. 1991. Adaptive regulation of hormone interaction with receptors. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology 97:13-28.
Viru, A. 1992. Mechanism of general adaptation. Medical Hypothesis 38:296-300.
Viru, A. 1993. Mobilization of the possibilities of the athlete's organism: a problem. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 33:413-25.
Viru, A. 1994a. Contemporary state and further perspectives on using muscle biopsy for metabolism studies on sportsmen. Medicina delloSport47:371-6.
Viru, A. 1996. Postexercise recovery period: carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Sciences and Sports 6:2-14.
Viru, A., and H. Akke. 1969. Effects of muscular work on cortisol and corticosterone content in the blood and adrenals of guinea pigs. Acta Endocrinology 62:385-90.
Viru, A., and A. Eller. 1976. Adrenocortical regulation of protein metabolism during prolonged physical exertion. Bulleean Eksperimental'noi Biologij i Medicine (Moscow) 82:1436-9.
Viru, A., J. Jürgenstein, and A. Pisuke. 1972. Influence of training methods on endurance. Track Technique 47:1494-6.
Viru, A., K. Karelson, and T. Smirnova. 1992a. Stability and variability in hormone responses to prolonged exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 13:230-5.
Viru, A., K. Karelson, T. Smirnova, and J. Ereline. 1995. Variability in blood glucose change during 2-h exercise. Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation 6:127-37.
Viru, A., M. Viru, K. Karelson, and T. Janson. 1999. Hormones in biochemical monitoring of training (abstract). Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 50(Suppl. 1):101.
Viru, A., and P. Korge. 1979. Role of anabolic steroids in the hormonal regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 11:931-2.
Viru, A., P. Korge, and E. Viru. 1973. Interrelations between glucocorticoid activity of adrenals, cardiovascular system and electrolyte metabolism during prolonged work. Sechenov Physiological Journal ofthe USSR 59:105-10.
Viru, A., L. Kostina, and L. Zhurkina. 1988. Dynamics of cortisol and somatotropin contents in blood of male and female sportsmen during their intensive training. Fiziologicheskij Zhurnal (Kiev) 34(4):61-6.
Viru, A., L. Laaneots, K. Karelson, T. Smirnova, and M. Viru. 1998. Exercise-induced hormone responses in girls at different stages of sexual maturation. European Journal of Applied Physiology 77:401-8.
Viru, E., J. Parnat, S. Tall, and A. Viru. 1979. Influence of frequent short-term training sessions on physical working capacity of female students. Acta et Commentationes Universitatis Tartuensis 497:12-8.
Viru, A., and V. Oopik. 1989. Anabolic and catabolic responses to training. In Paavo nurmi congress book, ed. Kvist, M. 55-56. Turku: The Finnish Society of Sports Medicine.
Viru, A., nd T. Seene. 1982. Peculiarities of adaptation t systematic muscular activity in adrenalectomized rats. Endokrinologie 80:235-7.
Viru, A., and T. Seene. 1985. Peculiarities of adjustments in the adrenal cortex to various training regimes. Biology of Sport 2:91-9.
Viru, A., and N. Seli. 1992. 3-methylhistidine excretion in training for improved power and strength. Sports Medicine Training, Rehabilitation 70:1624-8.
Viru, A., and T. Smirnova. 1982. Independence of physical working capacity from increased glucocorticoid level during short-term exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 3:80-3.
Viru, A., and T. Smirnova. 1985. Involvement of protein synthesis in action of glucocorticoids on the working capacity of adrenalectomized rats. International Joumal of Sports Medicine 3:80-3.
Viru, A., and T. Smirnova. 1995. Health promotion and exercise training. Sports Medicine 19:123-36.
Viru, A., T. Smirnova, K. Karelson, V. Snegovskaya, and M. Viru. 1996. Determinants and inoculators of hormonal response to exercise. Biology of Sport 13:169-87.
Viru, A., T. Smirnova, K. Tomson, and T. Matsin. 1981. Dynamics of blood levels of pituitary trophic hormones during prolonged exercise. In Biochemistry ofexercise IVB, ed. Poortmans, J., and G. Niset, 100-106. Baltimore: University Park Press.
Viru, A., and Z. Tendzegolskis. 1995. Plasma endorphin species during dynamic exercise in humans. Clinical Physiology 15:73-9.
Viru, A., Z. Tendzegolskis, and T. Smirnova. 1990. Changes of B-endorphin levels in blood during prolonged exercise. Endocrinologica Experimentalis 24:63-8.
Viru, A., K. Toode, and A. Eller. 1992b. Adipocyte responses to adrenaline and insulin in active and former sportsmen. European Journal of Applied Physiology 64:345-9.
Viru, A., E. Valja, A. C. Hackney, M. Viru, K. Karelson, and T. Janson. 2000. Influence of prolonged aerobic exercise on hormonal responses to subsequent intensive exercise. Submitted for publication.
Viru, A., E. Varrik, V. Oopik, and A. Pehme. 1984. Protein metabolism in muscles after their activity. Sechenov Physiological Journal of USSR 70:1624-28.
Viru, A., and M. Viru. 1997a. Adaptivity changes in athletes. Coaching and Sport Science Journal, 2(2):26-35.
Viru, A., and M. Viru. 1997b. Adattabilita dell'organismo: the problema fondamentale in medicina dello sport. Medicina dello Sport 50:365-71.
Viru, A., and M. Viru. 2000. Nature of training effects. In Exercise and sport science, ed. Garrett, W. E., and D. T. Kirkendall, 67-95. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Viru, M. 1994. Differences in effects of various training regimes on metabolism of skeletal muscles. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 34:217-27.
Viru, M., E. Jansson, A. Viru, and C. J. Sundberg. 1998. Effect of restricted blood flow on exercise-induced hormone changes in healthy men. European Journal of Applied Physiology 77:517-22.
Viru, M., L. Litvinova, T. Smirnova, and A. Viru. 1994. Glucocorticoids in metabolic control during exercise: glycogen metabolism. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 34:377-82.
Viru, M., K. Lóhmus, T. Kiudma, K. Karelson, and A. Viru. 2000a. Hormonal monitoring of training in elite cross-country skiers. In preparation.
Viru, M., and C. J. Sundberg. 1994. Effects of exercise and training in ischaemic conditions on skeletal muscle metabolism and distribution of fibre types. Medicina dello Sport 47:385-90.
Viru, M., H. Valk, and J. Teppan. 2000b. Monitoring of development of aerobic working capacity and endurance performance in young skiers during a three year period. In preparation.
Viru, A., Bosco, C., J. Tihanyi, L. Rivalta, G. Parlato, C. Tranquilli, G. Pulverenti, C. Foti, and M. Viru. 1996a. Hormonal responses in strenuous during prolonged exercise: an effect of gIycogen jumping effort. Japanese Journal of Physiology 46:93-8.
Viru, A., Bosco, C., and J. Tihanyi. 1996b. Relationships between field fitness test and basal serum testosterone and cortisol levels in soccer players. Clinical Physiology 16:317-22.
Viru, A., and Bosco, C.. 1998. Testosterone and cortisol levels in blood of male sprinters, soccer players and cross-country skiers. Biology of Sport 15:3-8.
Seens T, Viru A. The catabolic effects of glucicorticoids on different types of skeletal muscle fibers and its dependence upon muscle activity and interaction with anabolic steroids. J Steroid Biochem16: 349-352, 198
Snegovskaya V, Viru A. Growth hormone, cortisol and progesterone levels in rowers during a period of high intensity training. Biol.Sport 9:93-101,1992.
Snegovskaya V, Viru A. EVALUATION OF cortisol and growth hormone levels in the course of further improvement of performance capacity in trained rowers. Int J Sports Med 14. 202-206, 1993.
Snegovskaya V, Viru A. Steroid and pituitary hormone responses to rowing exercises: Relative significance of exercise intensity and duration and performance. Eur J Appl Physio.
Litvinova L.mViru A. Effect of exercise and adrenal insufficience on urea production in rats. Eur J Appl Physiol 70:536-540.
Litviniva L, Viru A. Does the increased blood urea depend on lactate response to exercise Coaching J Sport Sci 2(2):6-11, 1997.
Litvinova L, Viru A, Smirnova T. Renal urea clearence in normal and adrenalectomized rats after exercise, Jpn J Physiol 1989, 39:713-723.
Viru A, Jaanson T. Viru M. Effect of prolonged exercise on liver tryptophan oxygenese activity in rat. Biol.Spotr 22:29-33.2005
Viru A. Viru M. Bosco C. in short-term exercise: Resistance and power exercises Strenth and Conditioning J 25:7-15, 2003
Viru A., Viru m. Hormones in short-term exercises: Anaerobic exercises. Strength and Condition J, 25:31-37, 2003.
Hackney AS, Szczepanowska E, Viru AM. Basal testicular production endurance-trained men is suppressed, Eur J Appl Physiol Eus J Appl Physiok 89: 198-201, 2003.
Viru A. Kull M. Exercise for health in women: problems. Med dello sport 55:1-8, 2002
Viru A. Early contribtions of Russian stress and exercise physiologists. J Appl Physiol 92:1378-1382, 2002.


 

 

 
 
2. Biochemical Monitoring of Sport Training
Atko A. Viru, Mehis Viru, Atko Viru


Format: Hardcover
Pub. Date: January 2001
 

Análisis y Control
del Rendimiento Deportivo


Spanish Version

 

Atko-Meeme Viru, PhD, DSc, is a professor emeritus specializing in exercise physiology at the University of Tartu in Estonia. His investigations examine both the fundamental problems and applied questions related to the foundations of training monitoring. He earned a PhD from the University of Tartu in Estonia and a DSc from the Academy of Sciences of Estonia.
Scientific Advisor of Entrenament Esportiu Barcelona (International Training Center).

Mehis Viru, PhD, is a senior reseacher, head of the Laboratory of Sports Physiology, and the chair of coaching studies at the University of Tartu in Estonia. His main research areas are training monitoring, overtraining, and metabolic-hormonal adaptation to exercise and training. Dr. Viru has spent 15 years monitoring the training of Estonian elite athletes in different sport events. He studied and worked for four years at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, one of the world’s leading medical institutes. Dr. Viru earned a PhD from the University of Tartu in Estonia. 
Scientific Advisor of Entrenament Esportiu Barcelona (
International Training Center).

 

 
3. Hormones in Muscular Activity: Adaptive Effect of Hormones in Exercise
Atko A. Viru
Book Cover

Format: Library Binding
Pub. Date: November 1985
 
4. Hormones in Muscular Activity: Hormonal Ensemble in Exercise
Atko A. Viru
Book Cover

Format: Library Binding
Pub. Date: October 1985

 
 
1. Adaptation in Sports Training
Atko Viru, A. A. Viru
Book Cover

Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: December 1994

 


 



© Atko Viru sportbiochemistry.com